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Introduction :: Peru
Background:
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance.
Geography :: Peru
Location:
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
South America
Area:
total: 1,285,216 sq km
country comparison to the world: 20
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Current Weather
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land:
12,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
1,913 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 20.13 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 720 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: Peru experiences volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m, 18,609 ft), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane
Environment - current issues:
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
People :: Peru
Population:
29,907,003 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Age structure:
0-14 years: 29.1% (male 4,370,923/female 4,216,364)
15-64 years: 65.2% (male 9,695,270/female 9,574,018)
65 years and over: 5.7% (male 796,631/female 893,757) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 26.4 years
male: 26.1 years
female: 26.7 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.193% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Birth rate:
19 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Death rate:
6.13 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Net migration rate:
-0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
Urbanization:
urban population: 71% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.046 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 27.74 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 79
male: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.03 years
country comparison to the world: 138
male: 69.14 years
female: 73 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.32 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
76,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,300 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
Nationality:
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 Census)
Languages:
Spanish 84.1% (official), Quechua 13% (official), Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages 0.7% (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages), other 0.2% (2007 Census)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.9%
male: 96.4%
female: 89.4% (2007 Census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
2.7% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 158
Government :: Peru
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
constitutional republic
Capital:
name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence:
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
29 December 1993
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas (since 28 July 2006); Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas (since 28 July 2006); Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
note: Prime Minister Jose Antonio CHANG Escobedo (since 14 September 2010) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections last held on 9 April 2006 with runoff election held on 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA Perez elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA Perez 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple); Central Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes) [Victor Andres GARCIA Belaunde]; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration Party (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Union for Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]; Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
International organization participation:
APEC, CAN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis VALDIVIESO Montano
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna (representing fauna), a cinchona tree (the source of quinine, signifying flora), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out coins (denoting mineral wealth); red recalls blood shed for independence, white symbolizes peace
National anthem:
name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO
note: adopted 1822; the song won a national contest for an anthem
Economy :: Peru
Economy - overview:
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. The Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 9% per year in 2007 and 2008, driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals and the government's aggressive trade liberalization strategies, but then fell to less than 1% in 2009 in the face of the world recession and lower commodity export prices. Growth resumed in 2010 at nearly 8%, due partly to increased exports. Peru's rapid expansion has helped to reduce the national poverty rate by about 15% since 2002, though underemployment remains high; inflation has trended downward in 2009, to below the Central Bank's 1-3% target. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and poor infrastructure precludes the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. Not all Peruvians therefore have shared in the benefits of growth and despite President GARCIA's pursuit of sound trade and macroeconomic policies, persistent inequality has cost him political support. Nevertheless, he remains committed to Peru's free-trade path. Since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the United States, Canada, Singapore, and China, concluded negotiations with the European Union, and begun trade talks with Korea, Japan, and others. The US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA) entered into force 1 February 2009, opening the way to greater trade and investment between the two economies.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$274.7 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$254.8 billion (2009 est.)
$252.5 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$153.5 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
0.9% (2009 est.)
9.8% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,200 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$8,600 (2009 est.)
$8,700 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.8%
industry: 33%
services: 52.6% (2010 est.)
Labor force:
10.58 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 23.8%
services: 75.5% (2005)
Unemployment rate:
6.7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
8.1% (2009 est.)
note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line:
34.8% (2009)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 37.9% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
49.6 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26
46.2 (1996)
Investment (gross fixed):
25.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Public debt:
23.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
25% of GDP (2009 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
2.9% (2009 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
1.7% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
7.25% (31 December 2008)
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
21.04% (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
23.67% (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$20.53 billion (31 December 2010 est)
$16.77 billion (31 December 2009 est)
Stock of broad money:
$55.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
$43.57 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$28.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$23.37 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$69.75 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 47
$55.63 billion (31 December 2008)
$106 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products:
asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish; guinea pigs
Industries:
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
8.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Electricity - production:
30.57 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - consumption:
28.97 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production:
148,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
Oil - consumption:
157,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
Oil - exports:
68,640 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Oil - imports:
133,100 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
Oil - proved reserves:
470.8 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Natural gas - production:
3.39 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Natural gas - consumption:
3.39 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
Natural gas - exports:
NA
note: in 2010 Peru became a net exporter of LNG (2008 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Natural gas - proved reserves:
334.1 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Current account balance:
-$333 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
$246.3 million (2009 est.)
Exports:
$33.73 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$26.88 billion (2009 est.)
Exports - commodities:
copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, fishmeal
Exports - partners:
US 17.86%, China 15.96%, Canada 11.35%, Japan 6.75%, Chile 5.42%, Germany 4.25% (2009)
Imports:
$25.74 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$21.01 billion (2009 est.)
Imports - commodities:
petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports - partners:
US 23.96%, China 10.74%, Ecuador 7.25%, Brazil 7.19%, Chile 5.68%, Argentina 5.59%, Mexico 5.02% (2009)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$37.27 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$33.23 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Debt - external:
$33.29 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$30.51 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$43.47 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$36.91 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$2.12 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$1.88 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates:
nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar - 2.8178 (2010), 3.0115 (2009), 2.91 (2008), 3.1731 (2007), 3.2742 (2006)
Communications :: Peru
Telephones - main lines in use:
2.965 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 50
Telephones - mobile cellular:
24.7 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 36
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to roughly 85 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
Broadcast media:
6 major television networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; more than 500 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2007)
Internet country code:
.pe
Internet hosts:
268,225 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 62
Internet users:
9.158 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
Transportation :: Peru
Airports:
211 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 29
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 58
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 4 (2010)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 153
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 87 (2010)
Heliports:
1 (2010)
Pipelines:
extra heavy crude 533 km; gas 1,083 km; liquid petroleum gas 677 km; oil 1,018 km; refined products 15 km (2009)
Railways:
total: 1,989 km
country comparison to the world: 73
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)
Roadways:
total: 102,887 km
country comparison to the world: 42
note: includes 23,838 km of national roads, 19,049 km of departmental roads, and 60,000 km of local roads (2007)
Waterways:
8,808 km
country comparison to the world: 14
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries on Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 13
country comparison to the world: 106
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 7
foreign-owned: 1 (Bahamas 1)
registered in other countries: 13 (Belize 1, Panama 12) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Military :: Peru
Military branches:
Army of Peru (Ejercito Peruano), Navy of Peru (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard)), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2010)
Military service age and obligation:
18-30 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 7,920,056
females age 16-49: 7,795,130 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 6,045,256
females age 16-49: 6,501,224 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 312,375
female: 302,452 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
1.5% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 100
Transnational Issues :: Peru
Disputes - international:
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 60,000-150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru declined to 36,000 hectares in 2007; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 210 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2007; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption

Credits: CIA World Factbook

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